The construction of civil engineering projects is one of the oldest activities in the world. It has been present in all civilizations and has achieved ancient and wonderful jobs that even persevere in modern times. Today, however, these projects are much more complex and sophisticated due to the great advances that have occurred in the different types of civil engineering projects.
Their main function is to build, design, and maintain an appropriate environment for life in society, which includes structures such as roads, airports, dams, bridges, sewers, and railroads among others. They usually use Autodesk softwares such as CIVIL 3D and/or Infraworks to design and build projects, which can greatly improve performance even more if they have AEC Collection.
Experts in civil jobs have a considerable impact on our environment and the things we use daily that are made possible by the different types of projects developed to this day.
[H2]Civil Engineering Projects features
Before addressing the types of projects, it is important to know the characteristics of civil engineering projects. They are characterized, like architectural projects, by their great complexity, which is evident from the moment they are conceived.
Several elements define civil engineering, among which the following stand out:
- Simultaneity of activities: given that they involve large construction projects, the activities must be carried out at the same time.
- Division by phases: The activities involved are subdivided into secondary or tertiary activities. In certain cases, it is possible to consider them as smaller projects integrated into a megaproject. A successful civil project also involves several stages: analysis, identification of solutions, feasibility studies, financing, planning, and execution.
- High execution costs: The fact that many projects are large in scope has a direct impact on the amount of human, technical and material resources required. It implies budgets of millions of dollars, which are financed by private or public organizations.
- Long-term design: Most projects are designed for long-term execution, the can take months or years to be executed.
- Management by levels: The supervision and direction of one person are not enough. It requires a team of managers, which in many cases are part of the same company, each of whom must act as a manager in different areas of the megaproject.
Civil Engineering Projects Types
Civil engineering encompasses several types of projects, each of which requires extensive knowledge of physics and mathematics, as well as the ability to solve difficulties creatively. The list of types is constantly growing and some even have subcategories within them.
Structural Engineering Projects
Civil construction experts are involved in the design, analysis, and maintenance of various structures, like bridges and buildings, designed to meet various requirements, such as budget, load factors, and resistance capacity from various sources. They have to consider the conditions that the structures will withstand, including human and vehicle loads, and environmental loads, like the wind.
Geotechnical Engineering Projects
Geotechnical engineering experts use their knowledge of soil strength and structural design to define foundations, perform analyses of pavement depths and strengths, and assist in the design of embankments, dams, dykes, and mines, among other projects. They include soil aspects such as compression, strength, stress behavior, and saturation, which are crucial for virtually any construction project.
Foundation design can even extend beyond buildings and into objects such as cranes and platforms. Geotechnical engineering projects are constantly changing, which can be corroborated by the fact that formulas and calculations used today did not exist four or five decades ago.
Environmental Engineering Projects
They are generally tasked with analyzing and avoiding potential environmental hazards, protecting nature-preserved areas, and keeping construction sites, water reservoirs, and the atmosphere free of contamination. Experts in this type of project have a solid understanding of science and mathematics, for example, hydrology and climatology. They also possess knowledge of sustainable practices and materials applicable to the projects they undertake.
Hydraulic Engineering Projects
Hydraulic engineers are related to environmental engineers, as both help keep waterways and water sources clean, however, the former focus on developing clean and efficient distribution and liquid treatment systems. They help prevent flooding, keep groundwater sources protected, and mitigate the impacts of soil erosion at many sites. It should be added that they must have a broad understanding of environmental principles, fluid dynamics, and drainage.
Construction Engineering Projects
Construction engineering experts work on-site and ensure quality and good management practices when constructing any project. Their work is indispensable to any civil engineering construction and they have the potential to see a wide range of projects unfold before them. They are also responsible for ensuring that projects are constructed safely and no red flags occur during the process.
Transportation Engineering Projects
Comprises the design and maintenance of various means and related infrastructure, like roads, railroads, ports, and airports, among others that transport passengers or products for trade.
Planning is crucial to determine the most effective routes and types of transportation for a specific area. Transportation engineering experts can also analyze traffic and accident data to develop safe and efficient systems. Their job is to identify the mobility needs of a city, state, or country and meet them efficiently and cost-effectively.